SQL Server Database can reside in one among the seven states. For example these can be ONLINE, OFFLINE, RESTORING, SUSPECT etc. This article explains each of these states and includes a TSQL code which can be used to identify the current state of a SQL Server Database.
A SQL Server Database is can only be in one specific state at a given time.
When a database is in ONLINE state the database is available for access. The primary filegroup is online even though the undo phase of recovery may not have been completed.
T-SQL to set the database status to ONLINE
USE master GO ALTER DATABASE YourDatabaseName SET ONLINE GO
When a database is in OFFLINE state then the database is not accessible for user connections. One can set the database to this state if you don’t want users to connect to the database. For example you have migrated the database to a new server and don’t want users to accidentally connect to the Old SQL Server Database. Or, the database may be taken offline in order to move a file to a new disk. The database is then brought back online after the move has been completed.
T-SQL to set the database status to OFFLINE
USE master GO ALTER DATABASE YourDatabaseName SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE GO
When a database is in RESTORING state then it means one or more files of the primary filegroup is been restored or one or more secondary files are being restored offline.
When a database is in RECOVERING state it means its in the process of recovery and it will become automatically ONLINE for user connectivity. In case of a failure the database will become SUSPECT and become unable for use until a database intervene and fixes the issues.
When a database is in RECOVERY PENDING state it means SQL Server has encountered a resource related error during recovery. The database might be missing files. DBAs intervention is required in such a case.
When a database is in SUSPECT state it means the database is unavailable for user connection. Database may be damaged or at least the primary filegroup is supect. DBAs intervention is required in such a case. Read the following article which explains “How to Repair SUSPECT Database in SQL Server”
When a database is in EMERGENCY state it means a user has changed the status of the database to EMERGENCY. In EMERGENCY mode database will remain in SINGLE_USER mode and the database can be repaired or restored. Database will remain READ_ONLY. EMERGENCY is primarily used for troubleshooting purposes. For example, a database marked as suspect can be set to the EMERGENCY state. This could permit the system administrator read-only access to the database. Only members of the sysadmin fixed server role can set a database to the EMERGENCY state.
T-SQL to set the database status to EMERGENCY
USE master GO ALTER DATABASE YourDatabaseName SET EMERGENCY GO
How to Identify Current State of SQL Server Database
Execute the below query to identify the current state of all the SQL Server Database in your Instance.
Use master GO SELECT @@SERVERNAME AS [Server Name], NAME AS [Database Name], DATABASEPROPERTYEX(NAME, 'Recovery') AS [Recovery Model], DATABASEPROPERTYEX(NAME, 'Status') AS [Database Status] FROM dbo.sysdatabases ORDER BY NAME ASC GO
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